On intact plants the first ripe seeds are formed by the end of July. However, care should be taken to use a selective broadleaf herbicide to keep the competitive grasses intact. Spear thistle spreads only by seed. This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa). The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies), beetles. The average number of seeds per flower head is around 100 but there can be up to 340. longitudinally) with spiny 'wings' originating where the edges of the leaves continue down the stem. C. vulgare spreads freely by means of  seed which can be dispersed by the wind over a large area. Downs, M.P. In arable crops, spear thistle seedlings are destroyed by surface cultivations in spring, and by hoeing or spudding as necessary. Cirsium vulgare is native to Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, Pakistan and China. Will self-seed freely. Cirsium heterophyllum and wildlife. (2000) Effects of wetting and drying on seed germination and seedling emergence of bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. They form a flat rosette. In grassland, young plants should be spudded out at the rosette stage or cut down when in bud to prevent seeding. Locations within which Cirsium vulgare is naturalised include Africa and Asia, New Zealand, Australia, USA, Canada, South America, Hawaii and other Pacific islands. Seeds are short-lived on the soil surface but can persist for many years when they are buried, such as from cultivation activities. Seeds have little dormancy and germinate readily in moist conditions at favourable temperatures in the light. Unavailable per item 30 seeds per packet. Seeds are dispersed by wind, animals, mud, water, and sometimes by ants. Habitats include pastures, abandoned fields, fence rows, areas along roadsides and railroads, cut-over woods, and miscellaneous waste areas. One end of the seed contains many brown hairs. They serve no economic purpose and possess characteristics that are harmful to humans, animals or the environment) and Hawaii. It is frequent on unsown set-aside land and seems to have increased since the 1960s. Spear thistle flowers in June and July but rosettes can survive for up to 4 years without flowering. Public and private landowners are not required to control infestations of bull thistle that occur on their property in King County. Seeds may germinate and become established in thinner parts of a grass sward. It also occurs on roadsides, coastal dunes and in woodland clearings. Plants can be self-pollinated or insect-pollinated, mainly by long-tongued bees. The downy white underside contrasts with the green topside. Soil type. On intact plants the first ripe seeds are formed by the end of July. This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. The species may also dominate forest clear cuts and reduce growth of tree seedlings. Most species are considered weeds, typically by agricultural interests. Cirsium vulgare is a spiny herbaceous biennial, much branched to about 1.5 metres high with a deep tap root. The seeds are straw colored with a black streak approximately 1/6 inch long. Buy Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum' from Sarah Raven: Handsome, long-flowering, easy, healthy and loved by our pollinating insects. Fewer than 10 seedlings are likely to develop from the seeds shed by an individual thistle plant. is a registered charity in England and Wales (no. Loose-rooted plants supplied. Flowering stems should be collected and destroyed to keep them from forming viable seed. The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species. Cirsium vulgare(bull thistle, common thistle, or spear thistle) is listed as a noxious weed in nine US states. Cirsium vulgare Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso. Grazing management can help to reduce the ability of Cirsium vulgare to invade pasture lands. Cultivation. Shrubs, Bulbs, Seeds. Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. The seed has little innate dormancy and is generally thought not to form a persistent seedbank. Great for adding an focal point to a border. cap blanc nez france cote d'opale pas de calais Bull Thistle (Cirsium Vulgare) And Other Wildflowers. It is hardy to zone (UK) 2 and is not frost tender. All prices include postage and packing. Human activities such as bailing or harvesting can also aid the dispersal of seeds. & Cavers, P.B. Accessed January 2011. For more information, see Noxious Weed Lists and Laws or visit the website of the Washington State Noxious Weed Contro… Spear thistle seedlings may emerge in spring and autumn but the main period of emergence is March to April. CABI Publishing 2011. www.cabi.org/ISC. Seeds are dispersed during August and September. Seed production may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds per plant (Sindel, 1991). Seed production per plant may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds. Seed Catalogue No. Because control is not required in the county, it is on the list of Non-Regulated Noxious Weeds for King County. We use cookies to personalise content, analyse website performance and for advertising purposes. C. vulgare has been included in the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD 2010). C. vulgare spreads freely by means of seedwhich can be dispersed by the wind over a large area. Flowering and seed production is improved and seedling survival is greater. Low Maintenance, Cottage/Informal, Flower Arranging, Beds and borders, Wildflower, Wildlife. Suggested uses. Species: heterophyllum. Plants can be self-pollinated or insect-pollinated, mainly by long-tongued bees. Rosettes at 5-8 cm in diameter are more readily lifted and disposed of than large plants. Genus: Cirsium. 298104) and Scotland (SC046767). Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Cirsium vulgare is invasive in parts of Kenya (e.g. Plants cut down in flower produce few seeds and although they appear normal none are viable. Stems of C. vulgare have spiny wings. However, these uses cannot compensate for this plant's overall negative impacts. Manipulation of grazing together with sowing of appropriate grasses can help to reduce the densities of this weed. Leaves are dark green, deeply lobbed, with stiff hairs above, white woolly beneath; Leaf lobes end in strong spines. Gardening readers can buy three Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum' for £9.95 or buy six for £19.90 and receive a further 3 free. Regular cutting, cultivation and tilling considerably reduce populations of C. vulgare and should be encouraged. In pasture and other areas of dense vegetation seedlings emerge from small areas of disturbance like rabbit scrapings or the bare patches left when a parent plant dies. It inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. Seeds are short-lived on the soil surface but can persist for many years when they are buried, such as from cultivation activities. Unlike creeping thistle (C. arvense), the feathery pappus remains attached firmly to the seed as an aid to wind dispersal. Spear thistle can be pulled out when in flower, or the taproot may be cut below ground when plants are at the rosette stage using a thistle hoe. Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle). We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). The plants need to reach a threshold size before flowering is initiated. Cirsium vulgare reproduces only by seed. CABI Invasive Species Compendium online data sheet. Biological control releases against C. vulgare have been undertaken in many countries with variable success. The fruit is a one seeded tufted  achene that bears silky hairs. The seeds of scotch thistles can be sown in either autumn or after the last frost of spring. Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK. (1996) A persistent seed bank of the bull thistle Cirsium vulgare. ... Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum' Intense flowers of burgundy, shaped like little thistles sit on top of tall upright stems above long mid-green leaves. Disturbance of the soil and vegetation has been shown to advance the germination of spear thistle. Stem and leaves "The stems are ridged lengthwise (i.e. A large, non-spiky, perennial thistle, native to central and eastern Europe and Asia in wet soils. Accessed March 2011. Cirsium vulgare as a weed Spear thistle is designated an "injurious weed" under the UK Weeds Act 1959, and a noxious weed in Australia and in nine US states. In light soils the seeds do not persist for longer than a year on the surface or in shallow layers of soil. In heavier soils, however, a small number of seeds may remain for 3 years or more. Colour: Purple/Lavender. Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. Cirsium heterophyllum is known for attracting bees, beneficial insects, birds, butterflies / moths and other pollinators. Seed production per plant may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds. PPR, ARC South Africa. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. Lifecycle: Perennial. C. vulgare only reproduces by seed so control of seed set is key to preventing new infestations. Seeds are dispersed during August and September. Family Name: Compositae/Asteraceae. Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. C. vulgare flowers from late July to October and sets seed from August to October in the northern hemisphere (Grime et al., 1988). Cirsium vulgare has poor dispersal in space, but can form a persistent seed bank. They should be sown at a depth of 3 mm (1/8th inch). 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